Abstracts M--O

 


 
Raymond MacDonald (University of Strathclyde, Glasgow) &
Dorothy Miell (The Open University, Glasgow)
1-4b
Social Processes in Musical Communication: A study of children's collaborative compositions

This paper presents a study of the nature of children's musical communication when working on a collaborative compositional task. The paper reports the development and use of an innovative system for coding and analysing the semiotic significance of individual musical ideas and the manner in which these ideas are developed and elaborated through interaction. The results illuminate the ways in which complex social processes influence both verbal and musical communication. Specially this study highlights how relational factors and gender are crucial variables which are influential in the socio-musical system of collaborative composition.

 


 
Michael Mahrt (University College London):
2-3
Singing and the Transformations of Topical Social Structures

In this paper, I will analyse material from my fieldwork in Eritrea. Different types of songs are performed addressing delicate social situations (illegitimate sexual relations, emotional relations, etc.), and are indeed often the only way of addressing these situations. Through an analysis of these songs and their social and cultural context, I will argue against the hermeneutic and symbolic approach that sees music in particular, and aesthetics in general as a cultural-specific form of representation or communication. I will argue that the songs do not answer an implicit question or represent a specific object, but radically transform the very questions and objects they address. I will show how the songs are a structural transformation of the nature of current cultural situations and social relations. The meaning of the songs is thus not a message behind the actual music, but in the dynamics of aesthetics and the larger context and outcome of the actual performance. The logic of transformation and change is in the musical performance itself. In other words, the songs are not representations, but dynamic, catalytic presentations that restlessly transform and rearrange the topical social and cultural structures they address.

 


 
Gunta Makane (Music Academy of Latvia, Riga)
3-1
Text and Context: Some Problems of Style in Latvian Music

The history of Latvian music is rather short. Maybe this bare fact could explain the strong influence of the so-called national romantic style, which began in the last century and exists till today. However, there are many important side streams in Latvian music, for instance imitations of classical style, jazz-rock symphonies, twelve-tone technique works, etc. So, why do Latvians still prefer folk songs or at least their arrangements to "serious" music? Is it the lack of national self-confidence? Or on the contrary: could that be the overwhelming sense of a strong cultural background? The short lecture will be one more trial to explore my national identity.

 


 
Desmond Mark (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
2-2
Orchesterrepertoire und musikalischer Geschmack: Österreich im internationalen Vergleich.

Von "strahlenden Fixsternen" wie Mozart, Beethoven, Brahms bis zu "erloschenen Gestirnen", darunter etwa Hummel, Liszt, Spohr, reicht die Vielfalt der Werkschicksale von Komponisten im symphonischen Repertoire. Der amerikanische Musiksoziologe John H. Mueller hat eine Methode der Repertoireanalyse entwickelt, deren Resultate sich auch graphisch anschaulich in der Form von "Lebenszyklen" darstellen lassen und ein spannendes Bild von Beständigkeit und Vergänglichkeit der Werke im Repertoire und damit des muskalischen Geschmacks ergeben. Diese Methode wird auf die führenden Wiener Orchester angewandt und deren Repertoire mit jenem amerikanischer und anderer internationaler Orchester verglichen. Dabei zeigt sich, daß nicht nur in den USA, sondern auch in vielen anderen Ländern der Welt mehr als ein Drittel des Repertoires der großen Symphonieorchester aus "österreichischer" Musik besteht, die damit einen beachtlichen Teil des "Weltmusikerbes" bildet.

 


 
János Maróthy (Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest) &
Marta Batari (Budapest):
2-3
Twentieth Century Revolutions in Music and Society

Musical revolutions have intended, through our whole century, to change not only the musical structures but also, directly or indirectly, the social life of music, including its ways of production, presentation, propagation and perception. Thus, they have had something to do with social revolution even without express alignment. As a parallel from below, popular genres from jazz to rock also revolutionised both the structures and the ways of life of music, producing sometimes results similar to those of highbrow genres.

On the other hand, social-revolutionary movements have developed an increased receptivity to the avantgarde, from the twenties up to the sixties and seventies.

A third aspect is the "musical criticism" of revolutionary musicians towards failed realisations of revolutionary intentions. Music examples from Shostakovich and Eisler to Nono will be performed by the authors.

 


 
David José Murteira Mendes (University of Evora)
2-1
Knowledge Representation Suitable for Music Analysis

Lots of work has been done in the music representation field. However, it has been mostly concerned with the topics of reproduction (through hardware), transmission, accuracy, recording and printing. I've found that no systematic studies have been done that address the problem of Knowledge Representation of Music. Being specially interested in Music Analysis from an historical point of view, I'd like to have support for the study of Western tonal music whose analysis theory is a very well-developed science.

I present an approach for computer musical analysis based on LP (Logic Programming) and a newly proposed abstract structure for Knowledge Representation of Music. Upon this proposed KR structure I present forms of reasoning techniques based on nonmonotonic reasoning and I suggest Hypothetical Reasoning as the most suitable. Finally, some future work proposals are presented based on the new framework.

 


 
Jaroslaw Mianowski (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan)
3-3
Die Rückkehr eines Vampirs. Zwischen romantischer Oper und postmoderer soap-opera

Vor etwa 150 Jahren schrieb Heinrich Marschner die romantische Oper Der Vampyr, die zu jener Zeit große Anerkennung beim Publikum fand. Das Werk wurde aber bald vergessen und heute kennen es nur mehr Musikwissenschaftler. Die Autoren der Verfilmung der Oper, die vom BBC stammt und von Nigel Finch inszeniert wurde, versuchten, das Stück neuzuverstehen, um die Bedürfnisse des heutigen Publikums zu erfüllen. Der Vergleich der deutschen Oper mit dem englischen Pastiche provoziert einige sehr interessante Fragen. Welche Elemente der Struktur der Oper von Marschner werden ohne Änderungen in die heutige Produktion eingefügt und welche (und auf welche Weise) werden geändert? Was für einen Einfluß auf die musikalische Struktur hat die Änderung der Sprache (aus dem Deutschen ins Englische)? Welche Konsequenzen hat die Filmversion für das Libretto und die Musik? Das Drehbuch ist gegenüber dem Libretto stark verändert, um es auf heutige Verhältnisse zu adaptieren. Es scheint also interessant, die Zeichen des Librettos mit den ganz neuen Zeichen des Drehbuches zu vergleichen und die Frage zu stellen, ob sich die Rolle der Musik, die bei Marschner stark mit der Rhetorik des Textes verbunden war, im neuen Werk geändert hat. Die wichtigsten Fragen zu diesem Thema sind aber Rezeptionsprobleme. Ist das Publikum der damaligen Aufführung der Oper mit den neuen Fersehfans vergleichbar? Wer soll eigentlich der Adressat der Verfilmung sein? Ist diese Adaptation ein bizarrer Witz, ein einmaliges Experiment oder der interessante Vorschlag für das Wiedererstehen der vergessenen Oper?

 


 
Danuta Mirka (Music Academy Katowice)
2-4
Passion According to Penderecki

St Luke Passion (1963-65) is the node work in which two distinct compositional techniques of Penderecki's earlier output meet. The sonoristic technique of hitherto instrumental pieces (Threnody - To the Victims of Hiroshima, Polymorphia, Fluorescences) is employed in sections of the Gospel text that depict dramatic action; the writing based on twelve-tone thinking characteristic of his earlier vocal compositions (Psalms of David, Stabat Mater) forms the settings of liturgical texts commenting on the events of the Good Friday. Both planes cooperate in elaborating an interpretation of the Passion drama that departs from its traditional settings. Unlike his predecessors, Penderecki does not stress Christ's divine dignity, but rather concentrates on the human condition of Jesus. Such an interpretation is fully in line with the theological dogma of the double nature of Christ as a true God and true Man. On the plane of action, the very sonoristic system of composition based on binary oppositions between states of sound masses fits a psychologically naturalistic portrait of the Condemned on the brink of madness caused by pain and terror. On the plan of commentary, the double nature of Christ is interpreted by means of musical symbols/motives and by a particular distribution of the text among soloists and choirs.

 


 
Raymond Monelle (University of Edinburgh)
2-3
Musical Topics and Social History

Topic theorists have assumed that certain musical topics reflect aspects of the social world of the time. But in fact, when one examines the social background of classical and romantic music, one finds a very different picture. Commonly, topics reflect myths or fictions inherited from earlier periods; they constitute a kind of romanticism of their own. Admittedly, they may also suggest some current social development which gives them a fresh importance and modifies their nature. Thus, the military topic in eighteenth-century music reflects at once the heroic myth of the medieval and renaissance warrior, and the pompous, empty world of contemporary soldiering and warfare. The hunt topic recalls the idealized and ritualistic hunt of the ancient hunting texts in a society that had reduced hunting to a cruel and cowardly game. The topic of the noble horse brings to mind the knightly destrier of the middle ages, but (since the animal is always portrayed galloping) also the new cavalry fashion, initiated by Frederick the Great, for charging at the full gallop. In addition, topics are interconnected, reflecting the connections of social items: the 6/8 metre, sign of the noble horse, is also standard for the equestrian hunt topic, and is adopted by those military marches reserved for the cavalry.

 


 
Robert Morgan (Yale University)
1-3
"The Obsolete Chord". Tonal and Formal Dislocation in Mahler's Third Symphony

Building on the notion of the "obsolete chord" in Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus, the paper interprets the remarkably long series of repetitions of functionally unattached D-minor triads near the opening of Mahler's Third Symphony as a sign of musical/linguistic/spiritual crisis. After noting Mahler's virtuosic integration of the chord into the more "normal" music that immediately follows, the paper focuses upon the way the chord's petrified, inorganic nature nevertheless impresses itself upon the rest of the movement (e.g., in the subversion of harmonic motion in the development section, normally a site of tonal expansion). The movement, moreover, is largely diatonic, revealing that fin-de-siècle progressive music was not linked solely to chromaticism and dissonance, but could equally emerge from what might be termed the "emancipation of consonance".

 


 
Alexander Mózi (Hochschule für musische Künste Bratislava)
1-4b
Das Kinderlied aus historischem, ethnomusikologischem und semiotischem Blickwinkel

Kinderlieder sind ein geeignetes analytisches Material für Ethnomusikologen. Mit ihrer Hilfe können wir in die entfernte Vergangenheit der Anfänge der Entwicklung musikalischen Denkens und des Prozesses der Aneignung verschiedener Stufen abstrakten Denkens einsehen. Die gewonnenen Erkenntnisse sind um so wertvoller, als sie gesamtmenschliche Gültigkeit haben und beweisen, daß die Formen menschlichen Denken auf der ganzen Erdkugel gleich sind.

Mittelpunkt unseres Interesses sind pentatonische Kinderlieder von ihren anfänglichen Formen bis hin zu den hexachordalen. In der strukturalen Analyse beachten wir ihre morphologischen, syntaktischen und semantischen Eigenschaften, ihren Aufbau und die Symbiose der Texte mit der Musik. In der Enthüllung der anthropologischen Wurzeln der Kinderlieder entdecken wir die Vertretung einer Vielzahl deutlicher natürlicher semiotischer Zeichen.

Das Thema wird vom historischen, methodologischen, analytischen und semiotischen Standpunkt bearbeitet.

 


 
Scott Murphy (Eastman School of Music, Rochester, NY)
3-2
Semiotic Theories of Meaning and Evolution of Meaning in Film Music

Erich Wolfgang Korngold's music to the 1942 American melodramatic film Kings Row conjures its many semantic allusions from a web of interconnected musical and musico-cinematic codes. This web can be partially teased apart through the employment of Umberto Eco's concept of aesthetic idiolect. For example, the main title music makes a connection to anachronistic heroism and royalty via, among other signifiers, a similar melodic contour to swashbuckling music found within the same narrow idiolect of Korngold's film music themes. While this theme's antithetical association with rural Americana in Kings Row instead of Elizabethian royalty provides a metaphorical richness, this juxtaposition also distorts and reshapes the code within the idiolect. This reshaping has important implications for the interpretation of the return of the same thematic idea 35 years later in the main title music for the American science-fiction film Star Wars.

This presentation employs a model for film music analysis based on theories of A.J. Greimas and Christian Metz, and concludes with an extension of Eco's ideas of aesthetic code change.

 


 
Mariana Net (Romanian Academy of Sciences & University of Bucharest)
1-2
Aspects of Music and Self-representation in the Middle Ages

The paper starts from the following premises: 1) Dance (music) mediates the relation between the Self and the Other, offers multiple mirrors of the Self in the Other, and facilitates the retrieving of an (enriched) self-image. 2) Mediaeval music (and art, in general) is dominated by two idealized women images, viz. (a) the image of Virgin Mary (basically in religious music), and (b) the image of the beloved woman (from "la dame de lonhe" of the troubadours, to the "rosa bella" of Italian ars nova). 3) As most mediaeval composers created both religious music and secular one, it was almost unavoidable that the two trends should sometimes intermingle.

The demonstration will concentrate on a few changes in women identikits from Gautier de Coincy (12th century) to Johannes Ciconia (14th century). In this way, the paper will examine a few facets of woman worship, as well as a few ways of "breaking off" and "taking a distance" from the divine. Dance music is shown to be a basic vehicle to this end, especially by means of the metissages it facilitates, and the different roles of the Self and the Other it sets forth.

 


 
Elena Ostleitner (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
3-1
Die Nationalhymnen Lateinamerikas - Musikalische Begrenzung und Entgrenzung

Nach gängiger Meinung erhalten Hymnen, das akustische Pendant zu den Flaggen, ihre politische Aussagekraft erst durch ihre Worte. Die Musik per se sei nicht in der Lage, dem Hörer eine konkrete Aussage zu vermitteln. Diese Ansicht widerspricht jedoch allen musikpsychologischen und - physiologischen Untersuchungen, die vegetative Auswirkungen von Musik mit objektiv überprüfbaren Meßverfahren belegen.

Eine Analyse der Hymnen Lateinamerikas im Hinblick auf musikimmanente Parameter zeigt, daß diese musikalischen Sinnbilder der Unabhängigkeit paradoxerweise sich der europäisch-abendländischen Musiksprache bedienen. Fast ausnahmslos sind die Hymnen in Durtonart komponiert, sie weisen gerade Taktarten, kaum Modulationen, dafür aber punktierte, marschartige Rhythmen und einen Auftakt auf. Dieser nahezu idente Aufbau im Hinblick auf die rhythmische und im wesentlichen auch melodische Gestaltung dürfte ein wesentliches Charakteristikum der Nationalhymnen sein.

Komponiert wurden die Hymnen - bis auf drei Ausnahmen (Peru, Venezuela, Brasilien) - von Europäern.

 


 
Marcel Otte (University of Liège)
1-1a
The Constitutive Role of Music in Prehistoric Societies

Material traces of musical activities appear throughout the Palaeolithic and cover the entire range of instruments: flutes, drums, and musical bow. They are also represented in some rare images. Finally, musical activities seem to be linked to modes of resonance or echoes in painted caves.

The development of music was thus, at its origin, related to the development of consciousness and socialization. Musical sensitivity accompanies the development of intelligence, communication and solidarity. In these archaic phases of development, music probably had a fundamental motor role: social values taken by music are already illustrated there: ritualization, warning, festivities, solidarity, leisure. Musical activity was "consubstantial" in the development of humanity as a social organism.



Abstracts A--C | Abstracts D--H | Abstracts I--L | Abstracts P--S | Abstracts T--Z