Abstracts P--S


 
Christiane Pankow (Universität Göteborg)
3-3
Peter und der Wolf. Prokofievs musikalisches Märchen als multimedialer Text

Multimediale Texte sind nicht als statisch, als ein für allemal invariabel kodiert zu verstehen, sondern als historisch veränderlich und in jedem neuen Produktions- und Reproduktionsprozeß prinzipiell je anders rekonstruierbar. Dies trifft besonders für zeichentheoretisch komplexe Texte zu, in denen verbale und musikalische Zeichen parallel oder einander abwechselnd verwendet werden.

Das musikalische Märchen Peter und der Wolf von Sergei Prokofiev in der Fassung von Daniel Barenboim (Dirigent) und Loriot (Sprecher) von 1980 wird in mehreren Ansätzen einer semiotischen Textanalyse unterzogen.

In dem Beitrag wird davon ausgegangen, daß die Textbedeutung - unter Berücksichtigung der Intention des Senders (d.h. einer Gruppe von Sendern) - aus dem Zusammenspiel von verbalem und musikalischem Textteil ableitbar ist. Ikonische, indexikalische und narrative Relationen zwischen den Zeichensystemen sind für das Verständnis konstitutiv.

 


 
Judita Pecar (Vienna & Academy of Performing Art, Sarajevo)
3-3

The Role of Music in Bertolt Brecht[[ring]]s Songs

On the basis of a résumé of a more comprehensive work the following conclusions can be drawn. A polystylistic opera form conception has been developed, and applied on the forming of all musical parts.

The dialectical synthesis of musical form elements in a song represents a committed expression built into the musical structure. The independence of the musical structure is caused by the communication with the audience and by the didactic message of a song. The multiple musical space has been achieved by introducing socio-historical dimensions for the purpose of an autonomous musical expression beyond scenography.

Musical quotations and reorganized materials represent particles in the process of intellectual "attraction raising", leading to paradoxical conclusions for the purpose of criticising musical stereotypes, and consequently the stereotypes of social conscience.

The autonomous "gestus" attitude/expression of a single element of a musical unity is analogous to poetic form elements. The musical expression devices represent a musical arsenal of epic-dramaturgic forms for the purpose of "disalienation" of the audience by new theatre art. The dialectical causality of all the components of epic laws leads to the principles of art cration, where the musical result is an equal participant in the process ofthe dialectical metamorphosis of reality.

Kurt Weill, the composer, has, as a representative of SYNTHESISM (or: new 20th century eclecticism) and a creator of committed epic musical expression, to a large extent influenced the break-through of opera art into new spheres of musical theatre.

The importance of this work is to fill a gap, at least partially, in the interpretation of music in a Brecht song, by means of what we explain as a specific "gestus" in the musical sphere of activity in a song, finally as a dialectical conjugation with other components of epic dramaturgic form.

 


 
Erkki Pekkilä (University of Helsinki)
3-1
Popular Music Discourses in National Advertising Music

My paper will deal with television commercials with Finnish popular music as a jingle or background music. The context of the music is an international one since the programs in the commercial television are mainly American, the advertised products international ones, and the commercial spots either dubbed versions of international commercials or Finnish ones written in international style. In this context the Finnish popular music has a strong national flavor. While trying to find ways on how to analyze these meanings, I have ended up in seeing music as a cultural discourse, this consisting of a number of national, cultural, historical and mythical meanings. Musical meanings are both denotative (direct) and connotative (non-direct, "mythical") relationships. All is based on a number of intertextual relationships with different kinds of phenomena in the field of advertising, music, film, music videos and in a discourse on a meta-textual level (newspaper, magazine articles).

The presentation will be exemplified by a group of seven commercial spots for the Finnish lottery, their jingle music (Finnish tango) and a discursive analysis of their meanings.

 


 
Manfred Permoser (Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
2-3
Zwischen subjektiver Expressivität und postmoderner Polystilistik. Musik-Sprache als "tönende Sozialkritik" unseres Jahrhunderts

Der Konnex von musikalischer Textur, klingendem Ereignis und soziokulturell bestimmter Rezeption bedingt in wesentlichem Maß den Stellenwert artifizieller Musik in unserem Jahrhundert. Wie dabei das muskalische Kunstwerk (und sein In-Frage-Stellen!) zum Spiegelbild theoretisch-kunstästhetischer wie praktisch-gesellschaftlicher Prozesse und Wandlungen, wird, soll an konkreten Beispielen (von Mahler bis Berio, Nono, Pirchner, etc.) gezeigt werden.

Ausgehend von Untersuchungen muskialischer Strukturen (auf der Basis von "erkennendem Verstehen", ebenso aber auch begriffslos unmittelbar "ästhetischem Verstehen", vgl. H.H. Eggebrecht) sollen die, über bloß Musikalisches hinausweisenden Chiffren in ihrer allgemein kulturrelevanten bzw. gesellschaftspraktischen Dimension erkannt werden.

 


 
Yanna B. Popova (University of Oxford)
1-2
The Cognitive and the Social: Language, Music and Recent Research in Neuroscience

A recent search of activity in linguistics and cognitive science has produced a family of approaches to language structure known as cognitive-functional linguistics. They unite around a common assumption that language structure is a composite of cognitive and social communicative activities emerging from basic psychological operations of perception, attention, memory, categorisation and metaphoric mapping. Using recent research in neuroscience, the present paper proposes a similar cognitive-functional approach to music. Musical knowledge is sensory-perceptual or experiential knowledge, yet music is characterised by its ability to generate moods. Relying on research that studies the involvement of the right hemisphere of the human brain in literary and music response, the paper aims to underline the similarities in the brain's processing of literature and music (or, at least, the spatio-temporal patterns or forms that are constitutive of both).

 


 
Gabriele Proy (Wien)
3-2
Soundscape & Sound Design

Elektrische, elektronische und digitale Evolution haben die Akustik der Lautsphären verändert. Elektroakustische Medien formieren unsere Wahrnehmungsrealitäten. In Bereichen der Werbung und Produktgestaltung werden via Sound Design versteckte Klangbotschaften vermittelt. Signallaute, Symbole, Grundtöne und Orientierungslaute, Begriffe aus dem Gebiet der Lautsphärenforschung nach Murray Schafer, ermöglichen in weiterer Folge eine Beschreibung von Sound Design.

Im folgenden Vortrag wird der Frage nachgespürt werden, inwieweit eine bewußte und aktive Form des Zuhörens als Orientierungshilfe in der komplexen akustischen Gegenwart dienen kann. Hören in der Alltagssituation dient zur natürlichen Orientierung. In der Situation des konzentrierten Hörens hingegen eröffnet Hören neue Perspektiven. Schließlich ermöglicht die Reflexion über die Funktion und Bedeutung von Klängen ein sensibilisiertes Hören, das in ein Verstehen mündet.

 


 
Jon P. Radwan (University of Montevallo, Montevallo, AL)
2-1
Musical Semiosis: Active Form and Social Being

Unlike other works of art, music exists only in time - it is an active form. If we apply semiotic terms to music, this temporality means that the signifier is not really a sign (noun); it is more like a significant event or process (verb). Similarly, the signified is not a thing (noun), it must also be a process. In the same way, people are not nouns - while we have corporeal bodies, it is what we do with them (verb) and how we do it (adverb) that distinguishes us as individuals and, in a larger sense, societies. My basic thesis is that music has a unique relationship with social being because music, like living, is a temporal and dynamic art performed by granting stylistic quality to action over time. When we consider that music is also a social art, fully realized only when it is presented to others, we can begin to appreciate how musical semiosis works. By articulating active forms, absolute (instrumental) music will never tell us what to do, but it will always provide a compelling demonstration of how, in general, things are to be done, together.

 


 
Neil Randall & Isabel Pedersen (University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont.)
3-2
Songs for a Silent Medium: Evoked Music and the Synaesthetic Design of Websites

While music is a fundamental communication component of filmed genres such as movies, TV shows, music videos, and television advertisements, it has thus far found very little place in the communicative design (or even the aesthetic design) of Websites. Part of the reason is technological. First, music takes longer than text or graphics to download. Second, many users do not have music hardware on their computers (or they rarely use it). Third, the software tools to produce music are far more difficult to conceptualize and to use than those to produce music. But a more important part is that the Web simply has no widespread musical precedent for including music as a mode of communication. Thus far, designers have treated the Web as closer to printed media than to filmed media, and as a result potentially communicative elements such as animation, video sound, and music have been seen as frills and even annoyances, when they have been used at all.

In this paper, we examine the possibility of building music as a communicative sign system into the design of Web documents. But instead of actual music, which we realize is impractical at this stage of the Internet's history, we propose design criteria based on what we call "evoked music", or music that exists only in the mind of the Website's visitor. In other words, we make use of the fact that the mind often "hears" music because it has been evoked by words, pictures, or any of the senses, a process made possible by music's power to remain in the memory. This paper explores the possibility of including evoked music as a multi-sensory, "synaesthetic" semiotic system, to the degree that the music in the document, or that indeed stand on their own. The paper relies on social semiotics and rhetorical theory in its examination, particularly the works of Gunther Kress, Theo van Leeuwen, and Kenneth Burke (with others). <

 


 
Daniel Rieppel (Southwest State University, Marshall MN)
2-2
Schubert's Beethoven: Vaterbild or falsches Bild?

The music of Franz Schubert "sounds" like no other, his use of wildly divergent harmonic schemes, his refusal to follow always established formal models, as well as the existence of many incomplete works suggest a composer whose language is completely "other", distinct from many of his contemporaries. Yet his work also comments on and, in some ways, challenges the musical ideas set forth by his greatest contemporary, Beethoven. The relationship between Beethoven and Schubert, which did no exist in any meaningful way on a personal plane, is often described in father-son terms, hence the use of Vaterbild. But begs to be investigated if this is so, and to what extent this relationship can be deduced in its syntacto-semantic gestures. Also worth examining is the recent uproar over Schubert's sexuality and if this has any bearing on not only his choice of poet's for his many Lieder, but more interesting if this aspect of his personality affected his formal choices, particularly with regard to the sonata form.

 


 
Ronald Rodman (Carleton College, Northfield, MN)
Musical Style Topoi, the Seme Mythique, and the Intersubjective in American Television Advertising.

In his 1987 book, Television Culture, John Fiske creates a hierarchical model of signification on television that divides the televisual signification process into three layers: "reality", "representation" and "ideology". In this paper, I adapt and modify Fiske's model to show how musical style topics function as semes to aid in the construction of meaning in television advertisements. In my model, musical style topics are musical signs that can (and do) produce their own significations as the result of intertextual associations with other electronic media, especially radio and music video. While capable of producing their own chain of interpretants, however, musical style topics in television advertising also combine with other "reality" parameters of the televisual medium (e.g., image, sound, dialogue, etc.) to delimit the range of interpretants and produce a more narrow and focused chain of intersubjective interpretants. These interpretants may be ideologies (in Fiske's sense), or they may be "semes mythiques" (Tarasti's term), or both. Specifically, in this paper I trace this process of signification in three television advertisements for automobiles which use popular, classical, and exotic (non-Western European) musical style topics.

Selected Bibliography:
Agawu, Kofi. Playing with Signs: A semiotic Interpretation of Classic Music. Princeton,NJ: Princeton Univ. Press,1991
Fiske, John. Television Culture. London-New York: Routledge,1987
Metz, Christian. Essais sur la signification au cinéma. Paris: Klincksieck 1968
Tarasti, Eero, ed. Musical Semiotics in Growth. Bloomington, IN: Indiana Univ.Press 1996
Tarasti, Eero. Myth and Music. The Hague-Paris-New York: Mouton 1979

 


 
Paolo Rosato (Liceo Scientifico "Galileo Galilei", Pescara)
2-4
"Melos" Narrativity in Anton Webern

Among languages of twentieth century music, dodecaphonic and serial systems seem to aim at an absolute unity of each piece. This way, however, significative oppositions diminish and our precomprehensions begin to lose any contact with the inner musical material.

Unlike Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern's dodecaphonic rows operate as background for the standing out of melodic configurations and processes. A double level of articulation - which distinguishes between canon properties of the dodecaphonic system and those pertaining to the individual melody of each piece - can be found. Webern himself said that the "nomos" (in ancient Greek nomos means both melody and law), the law of his music was melody, as in the works of great masters.

I'll analyze Webern's transcription of Fuga Ricercata by J.S. Bach (1935) and a movement from the II. Kantate (1941-43). In the former, the composer builds a proper timbre system on Bach's music, so that the "Webernian" melodic units and their relationships come out to the evidence. In the latter, a sophisticated melodic game emerges on an essentialized timbre background.

In my opinion, these analyses show an aesthetic continuity founded on a poietic one, but also a discontinuity more evident from an aesthetic point of view. In fact, Webern's work seems to propose a new hierarchy within musical parameters that only partially follows pre-tonal modalities, thanks to the action of timbre and dynamics in the foreground. The last question is about the aim of these parameters at, and their real capability of structuring a field of tension-release regulated by a homeostatic principle as in the case of the traditional tonal system.

 


 
Claudia Rossini (University of Zurich)
3-1
"Just a Party"? - Traditional Music and Social Life among Slavic-Speakers in Greek Macedonia

In the district of Florina, Greek Macedonia, the performing of traditional music was repeatedly prohibited by the government during the last 80 years because of its non-Greek character. In particular singing in the Slavic idiom was repeatedly censored. However, a change of the Greek government in the 80s made it possible for local bands to reintroduce singing to their performances. The decision to sing or not to sing is nowadays a highly political one, related to the issue of ethnic identity: people distinguish between "Macedonian" and "Greek" feasts, depending on the use of singing there is made; an analogous distinction is made for music groups and single songs or dances.

Since it is the dancing audience which determines the music repertory by expressing its wishes - the so-called "parangelies" - to the musicians, each festivity becomes a musical translation of people's political positions. By his or her dancing each individual makes a political statement whose meaning is strictly related to its context. Traditional dancing acquires this way a new symbolic dimension at the core of social life.

 


 
Ezio Sciarra (University of Teramo)
2-4
Dissociative Systems and Hermeneutics

In the artistic languages of modern Western tradition (from 17th to 19th century) we can find ordered systems - referred to specific periods, movements, and authors - which have a generative grammar, an internal hierarchy, and possibilities of variations. Such variations can produce changes within a horizon of recognizable continuity.

The musical languages of the twentieth century seem to have broken continuity through emergence of alternative systems, strongly destructured if compared with the models of modernity.

In my opinion, this destructuration shows a logic of both continuity and discontinuity, if we apply those criteria of hermeneutics that are used in interpretation of dissociative systems to the reading of many empirical manifestations of music.

A dissociative system isolates an even peripheral variation belonging to a preceding ordered system, and uses it as global background for a new linguistic game, proposing new hierarchies, generative grammars, and possibilities of variation.

The hermeneutics of the passage from modernity to the twentieth century art consists in noticing that our precomprehensions are grounded in the absence background of the traditional systems, and they are to be tested on the presence of the dissociated elements that generated the new map of gestaltic reorganization of the emerging artistic language.

 


 
Peter Dunbaugh Smith (Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL)
3-2
Functional Music and the Fragmentation of the Myth

One of the paradoxes discovered within a synchronous analysis of music is that a musical event must occur through a compositionally specified measurement of time to constitute a complete musical entity and then must achieve social persistence through time in order to become a musical artifact. Connotative significance of these persistent musical artifacts provides selection criteria for the creation of new musical events by non-musical interpreters who act as mediating agents for the recontextualization of previously intact artifacts by fragmenting original musical statements into increasingly smaller and smaller components. Functional musical entities (commercials, sound-bites, pastiches, parodies, and quotations) are generated from previously complete works and new contextual associations are introduced, leading to an isolation of the original artifact from, not only the initial compositional impulse, but from persistent social connotations as well. The brevity of an artifact's occurence in these new constructions prevents any denotational transmission of "mythical" characteristics through formal considerations yet the strength of the connotative clues remain.

 


 
Alfred Smudits (MEDIACULT & Universität für Musik und darstellende Kunst Wien)
2-2
Definitionskriterien für "heimische" Musik aus musik- und medienpolitischer Sicht

In manchen Ländern werden Quoten diskutiert, mittels derer der Mindestanteil "heimischer" Musik im Radioprogramm festgelegt werden soll; in internationalen Statistiken der Musikindustrie wird ein "domestic share" ausgewiesen; die europäische Musikindustrie feiert einen deutlich wachsenden Anteil des "europäischen" Repertoires am Tonträgerumsatz in Europa in den 90er Jahren... Was aber ist "heimische" Musik, welche Kriterien müssen erfüllt sein, daß ein Stück Mus-ik einem Land, einer Region zugeordnet wird? Wer legt diese Kriterien fest?

Vor dem Hintergrund dieser Fragen werden einige konkrete Modelle vorgestellt und aus einer vor allem musikpolitischen Sicht diskutiert.

 


 
John Style (University of Tarragona)
3-2
Elgar's Enigma as a Floating Musical Sign: Irony in the Use of Classical Music in Film

This paper is an attempt to come to grips with the semiological implications of the reuse of classical music as background music to cinema. Taking as a starting point the use of Elgar in the recent British film, Elizabeth (1998), it considers the range and complexity of responses that this excerpt may (or may not) induce in the viewer; these go from a naive enjoyment of the sheer 'sound' quality, music as a floating sign, to the questioning of significance of the relocated cultural artefact, and its potential for ironic comment, in this case, on the imperialist ideology behind the film. Following Frow's circulation model for the accumulation of cultural value, the paper considers a) how a range of referents are (un)consciously dragged into play by the multifaceted signification of the music, or are magically spirited away, in the relocation process, and b), how excision from the original setting (theme as extract) is a common component of musical 'sites' where, in Hutcheon's formulation, 'irony happens'.

 


 
Magda Szapu (Somogy-Museum Kaposvár)
3-2
Gegenwärtige Gruppierung/Sozialisierung der ungarischen/Kaposvárer Jugend
(aufgrund musikalischer Sozioindikatoren)

Es handelt sich um zeitgenössische Kulturforschung, die methodisch anstrebt, in die ungarischen Folkloristik eine Modellforschung einzuführen. Da man bei uns derartige Untersuchungen z.Zt. vermißt, baut meine Arbeit vor allem auf empirischem Material auf.

Meine fast ein Feldforschungsjahr umfassenden Arbeiten wurden durch Beobachtungen und Umfragen ergänzt. Gerade die Umfragen machen die Auswertung auch im statistischen Sinne möglich. U.a. wurde die Frage untersucht, ob die Jugendkultur überhaupt eine auf Selbstregelung aufgebaute Subkultur ist oder es sich dabei nur um eine konsumistische, oberflächliche Form der "großen" Kultur handelt. Geht es dabei also um eine schnell vergessene Mode oder um eine Traditionenbegründung?

Im Brennpunkt meines Vortrags wird die Mode gestellt, u.zw. in dem Zusammenhang, welche Auswirkungen auf die Jugend nachweisbar sind, schwerpunktmäßig ihre Lebensweise, ihren Lifestyle betreffend. Unter Mode wird selbstverständlich nicht nur Musik an und für sich verstanden, sondern auch (Ver)Kleidung, die Freiheit bei der Auswahl von gesellschaftlichen Anliegen, durchaus auch mit der Freiheit von Gedanken identifiziert. Durch all das - als Mode bezeichnet - wird eine Schichtkultur gestaltet, die Gruppen voneinander trennt, gleichzeitig aber neue Wertstrukturen und Weltanschaungen schafft. Jegliche Verbrauchsformen stehen in Zusammenhang mit bestimmten sozialen Gruppen, sie verkörpern die Symbolik von Schichtenangehörigkeit. Kulturerscheinungen, also Musik, Tanz, Bekleidung, Sprache, Symbole, Gesten usw., sind Merkmale der Gruppenidentifikation, des sog. "Wir-Bewußtseins". Einzelne Kulturelemente bzw. -erscheinungen funktionieren als Zeichen (Kleiderstoffe, dessen Farben, Gestalt, Schnitt, Haarmode, Zeichen, Tattoos, Schmuck, das Betreiben von körperaufbauenden und Angriffssportarten, Markenzeichen usw.) und werden zu Symbolen. Meine Aufgabe lag darin, all das in inhaltlicher, formeller und funktioneller Perspektive zu erfassen.

Die Aktualität ergibt sich dadurch, daß aufgrund der beschleunigten Globalisierung der Generationenwechsel verschärft auftritt, was in Ungarn zudem mit stark mit dem Systemwechsel zusammenhängt. Mein Forschungsfeld liegt in der Kreisstadt des Landkreises Somogy, im Südwesten Ungarns, eine Stadt, die aufgrund ihrer Einwohnerzahl für die Beobachtung der erforschten sozialen Gruppen gut geeignet ist. (Allein die Lage südlich des Plattensees, in der Nähe der österreichischen und südslawischen Grenze, zu Taszár, zur Militärbasis der IFOR-Truppen, ist schon an und für sich beachtenswert.)

Mein Vortrag untersucht acht verschiedene Forschungseinheiten/Gruppen. Diese sind: die sog. Alternativen, die Diskothekgeher/innen, Houser/innen, Punks, Rappers, Ravers, Rockers und Skinheads.



Abstracts A--C | Abstracts D--H | Abstracts I--L | Abstracts M--O | Abstracts T--Z